• Document: EFFECTS OF THE THICKNESS OF BLOCK CUTTING MACHINE GANG SAW ON WASTE PERCENTAGES AND PRODUCTIVITY
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Palestine Polytechnic University, Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable Development (ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West Bank, State of Palestine Paper Code No. ENV114 EFFECTS OF THE THICKNESS OF BLOCK CUTTING MACHINE GANG SAW ON WASTE PERCENTAGES AND PRODUCTIVITY Jawad Alhaj Marble and Stone Center, Palestine Polytechnic University 00972, Hebron, Palestine Jawad-alhaj@ppu.edu ABSTRACT This paper aims at studying the stone waste percentages generated from cutting stone blocks into slabs using stone block cutting machine (Gang Saw). This type of stone waste is in the form of powder (fine stone particles) mixed with cooling water and converted to mud or slurry. Practical data for the Input (stone blocks) and the output (stone slabs) for this machine was collected from different stone companies in Palestine as random sample. Statistical analysis was carried out for these data related to the thickness of stone slabs. The practical results were investigated, calculated and compared with the ideal values, (ideal values were calculated theoretically for one cubic meter of stone block with dimensions of one meter length, one meter width, and one meter height). This study shows that, there is inverse relation between the cutting thickness of the gang saw (which equals the thickness of produced stone slabs) and the volume waste percentages and productivity (area of stone slabs produced in square meters per one cubic meter of stone block). Also, the volume waste percentages fluctuate around the ideal values which are 26% for 2cm, 19% for 3cm and 22% for the mixed 2&3cm thicknesses. 1 INTRODUCTION Stone and Marble industry in Palestine is considered one of the conventional and historic industries. Researches were in agreement with the fact that Palestine is one of those countries in which raw material for construction stone is available at commercial quantities, and distinguished for its type, quality and multicolor. About 742 facilities (official and unofficial) work in stone and marble industry with more than 13,500 workers engaged in the stone sector [1]. The Palestinian Production of stone is about 4% of the world's stone production [1]. This sector contributes approximately 25% to the overall Palestinian industrial revenue, and 4.5% of the total Palestinian gross domestic product [1]. Processing of natural stone aims to produce finished (e.g. tiles) or semi-finished (e.g. slabs) products in order to cover the market needs. During the production processes considerable amounts of waste are generated [2]. Stone slurry is a semi-liquid substance consisting of particles originated from the sawing and polishing processes and water used to cool and lubricate the sawing and polishing machines [3]. Slurry is created from all stone cutting operations when the cooling water mixes with the fine stone ENV114-1 Palestine Polytechnic University, Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable Development (ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West Bank, State of Palestine Paper Code No. ENV114 particles. It is collected and recycled in appropriate installments in order to recycle the water into the production process. Using press filters the water recovery can reach up to 90% still leaving a material called sludge with a high humidity content (22-28%) [2]. There are two types of block cutting machines; Stone machine of two-way cutting machine (which is known as Mangal in stone industry and can cut out the stone blocks into stone strips with certain thickness and maximum width of about 60cm). The second type is a Gang Saw machine which cut out the stone blocks into large slabs with certain and specific thicknesses. 2cm and 3cm are the most used thicknesses in stone factories and known as standard thicknesses in the stone industry in Palestine. Factories that have only one gang saw sometimes fix the cutting thickness into 2cm and 3cm and produce part of the stone block into slabs with thickness of 2cm and the rest of the stone block into slabs with thickness of 3cm. The idea of this paper is to study percentages of stone waste during cutting stone blocks by Gang Saw into slabs, because most of the waste of this machine is converted to powder and mixed with water, to become as slurry or sludge. Also, this type of waste is intangible or invisible as the other waste types like the cracked stone. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The greatest waste concern in the stone industry is stone itself, specifically in the forms of overburden, screening residual, wastewater sludge, fines, and stone fragments. In 2006, a survey of the

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