• Document: Superconducting and Solid-State Electronic Fault Current Limiter Technologies The shift from demonstration projects to Business-as-Usual solutions
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Superconducting and Solid-State Electronic Fault Current Limiter Technologies The shift from demonstration projects to Business-as-Usual solutions Dr. Detlev Kirsten & Herbert Piereder Solid State SSFCL Superconducting SCFCL Impedance on Demand Applied Materials | Hannover Fair 2015 Contents  The Fault Current Challenge  Fault Current Limiters  Applied Materials  Projects 2 © Applied Materials | Hannover Fair 2015 The Fault Current Challenge Generation Transmission Distribution Customers New Energy Sources More Demanding Operations Increased Load  Renewable Power – Wind, Solar, Biomass  Increased Duty Cycles  Transportation - Electric Cars, Trains  Increased Grid Meshing for Reliability and  Disappearing Off-Peak Periods  Urbanization - Population Growth Power Quality  Modern Conveniences  Aging Infrastructure  Distributed Generation Trends in Electricity networks increase Fault Current Levels 3 © Applied Materials | Hannover Fair 2015 Conventional Fault Current Mitigation Install High ImpedanceTransformers 132kV G 220/380kV Install Reactors Transformer Feed Generator Feed 33kV 110kV Bus Coupling Upgrade Circuit Breakers Sensitive Loads Split the network 4 © Applied Materials | Hannover Fair 2015 Use of Fault Current Limiters FCL Fault Current Limiter 132kV G 220/380kV Transformer Feed Generator Feed 33kV 110kV Bus Coupling Sensitive Loads 5 © Applied Materials | Hannover Fair 2015 Desired Characteristics of an Ideal FCL Typical current waveforms due to fault  Increase the impedance on the Normal Operation Fault Recovery line well before the first fault peak Without FCL (Prospective Fault Current) (when the most damage occurs) Fault Inception Fault Clearing  In normal operation, it is virtually "transparent“ (no power or voltage loss) to the network  Diminish the fault current by at Current least a factor of 2 for its duration  Return the source impedance to td (Fault duration time) tr (recovery time) its original value when fault is cleared Normal Load Current Prospective Fault Current Limited Fault Current Fault Current Limiters Reduce Fault Currents Without the Need for Mitigation 6 © Applied Materials | Hannover Fair 2015 Fault Current Limiter Solution Platform Shunt Reactor, ZSH = RSH + j XSH  Transmission System FCL ISH – Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SCFCL) SC unit – 66 kV to 230 kV transmission voltage levels

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