• Document: INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS
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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: PRACTICAL: 1 INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: 1. INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS Object: To study various Surveying Instruments a) Instruments Used for Linear Measurements  Chain or Tape  Arrows  Pegs  Ranging Rods  Offset Rods  Plumb Bob  Optical Square  Line Ranger b) Instruments Used in Angular Measurements  Prismatic Compass  Surveyors Compass c) Instruments Used in Vertical Measurements  Leveling Staff  Dumpy Level  Theodolite d) Instruments Used for Measurement of area.  Planimeter PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE:   PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: CONCLUSION: ASSIGNMENT: Q1) Enlist uses of above mentioned Surveying Instruments: GRADE: SIGNATURE: PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: PRACTICAL: 2 CHAINING AND OFFSET TAKING PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: CHAINAGE DIAGRAM PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: 2. CHAINING AND OFFSET TAKING OBJECT: To measure horizontal distance between two points by chaining and to take perpendicular offsets INSTRUMENTS: Metric Chain, Tape, Ranging rods, Arrows, Cross Staff, Line ranger, Optical Square. PROCEDURE:  Two chain men are required in this process. The chain men are called as Leader and follower. The chain man at the forward end of the chain is called leader and chain man at the zero or rear end of the chain is called as follower.  Fix station A and B at some distance by fixing wooden peg to determine horizontal distance between them.  Position of station A, and B is fixed by measuring their position from at least three permanent objects and location sketch of station A and b are drawn.  The follower holds one handle of the chain in contact with peg at station A.  The leader takes the other handle of the chain, arrows and ranging rod & walks in the forward direction dragging chain with him.  After the chain is stretched completely along the line the follower steps on one side of the line with the ranging rod touching the handle.  The follower directs the leader to stand exactly in the line. The leader puts a scratch at the position & inserts an arrow. He then moves forward with the chain handle with the remaining arrows and ranging rod till the follower reaches the next arrow point. PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: STATION A LOCATION SKETCH STATION B LOCATION SKETCH PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE:  During this procedure details which are along the side of the chain line are located by lateral measurement with the help of offset and tape. The points located are known as perpendicular offsets.  All the perpendicular offsets are measured till station B is reached.  All the measurements recorded in the field book. CONCLUSION: ASSIGNMENT: Q1).Explain various sources and nature of errors in chain surveying. GRADE: SIGNATURE: PAGE NO: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DATE: PRACTICAL: 3 COMPASS SURVEY

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