• Document: HAMBATAN INTELEKTUAL (TUNAGRAHITA)
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HAMBATAN INTELEKTUAL (TUNAGRAHITA) • PERKEMBANGAN MENTAL TERBELAKANG • ADAPTASI TINGKAH LAKU TERBELAKANG • DITANDAI MA LEBIH LAMBAT DARI CA • MA: Mental Age • CA: Chronological Age PERISTILAHAN • Lemah otak • Lemah ingatan • Lemah pikiran • Bodoh • Terbelakang mental • Tuna mental • Cacat mental • Tunagrahita ETIMOLOGIS • Istilah dalam bahasa Inggris yang dikemukakan Hilliard dan Kirman (Smith et all., 2002: 43) sebagai berikut: • “People who are mentally retarded over time been referred to as dumb, stupid, immature, defective, deficient, subnormal, incompetent, and dull. Terms such as idiot, imbecile, moron, and feebleminded were commonly used historically to label this population. Although the word fool referred to those who were mentally ill, and the word idiot was directed toward individuals who were severely retarded, these terms were frequently used interchangeably.” PENGERTIAN • INTELIGENSI (IQ)  KURANG DARI 70 PADA SKALA BINET DAN WECHSLER • KEMAMPUAN ADAPTIVE  TERDAPAT KETIDAK MAMPUAN MINIMAL 2 KETERAMPILAN ADAPTASI DIANTARA KEMAMPUAN KETERAMPILAN YANG MELIPUTI: KOMUNIKASI, BANTU DIRI, KESEHATAN DAN KESELAMATAN DIRI, KETERAMPILAN SOSIAL, KETERAMPILAN DALAM KEHIDUPAN DI KELUARGA, PENGARAHAN DIRI, AKADEMIK FUNGSIONAL, KEMASYARAKATAN, PENGGUNAAN WAKTU LUANG, DAN BEKERJA • TERJADI PADA MASA PERKEMBANGAN  MASA PERKEMBANGAN YAITU SEBELUM USIA 18 TAHUN AAIDD American Association of Intellectual Development and Disabilities Hambatan Intelektual (Tunagrahita) menurut AAIDD Istilah Intellectual Disabilities (ID) yang sebelumnya menyebut dengan Mental Retardation (MR). Hal itu dikemukakan oleh American Association on Intelectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) melalui Schalock et al., 2010 (Kauffman & Hallahan, 2011: 176) “characterized by significant limitation both in intelectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills.” DEFINISI HI • Tredgold th. 1937 (Smith et.all., 2002: 47) • “A state of incomplete mental development of such a kind and degree that the individual is incapable of adapting himself to the normal environment of his fellows in such a way to maintain existence independently of supervision, control, or external support”. Definisi Edgare Dole th.1941 • “That a mentally deficient person is: 1) social incompetent, that is socially inadequate and occupational incompetent and unable to manage his own affairs the adult level, 2) mentally subnormal, 3) which has been developmentally arrested, 4) retarded maturity, 5) mentally deficient as result of constitutional origin through heredity or disease, 6) essentially incurable”. Definisi persektif sosiologi • Jane Mercer (Smith & Luckasson, 1992:125) sebagai berikut : • “That mental retardation has to be understood as a social role, assigned by a particular social system and assumed by individual. From a social perspective, “mental retardate” is an achieved social status and mental retardation is the role associated with that status. A mental retardation is one who occupies the status of mental retardate and plays the role of the mental retardate in one or more of the social systems in which he participates”. Heber tahun 1961dari AAMD • “Mental retardation refers to subaverage general intellectually functioning existing concurrently which originates during the development period and is associated with impairment in adaptive behavior.” Definisi AAMR th.1992 oleh Ruth Luckasson Mental retardation “refers to substantial limitations in present functioning. It is characterized by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work. Mental retardation manifests before age 18.” Adaptasi tingkah laku dalam 10 bidang • Komunikasi • Menolong diri sendiri • Keterampilan hidup di keluarga • Keterampilan sosial • Kebiasaan di masyarakat • Pengarahan diri • Kesehatan & keamanan diri • Akademik fungsional • Waktu luang dan kerja KLASIFIKASI Hambatan Intelektual/TUNAGRAHITA 1.Mild Mental Retardation 55-70 to Aprox, 2.Moderate Mental Retardation35-40 to 50-55 3.Severe Mental Retardation20-25 to 35- 40 4.Profound Mental Retardation bellow 20 or 25 KLASIFIKASI 1. LIMITED, membutuhkan support waktu tertentu (ringan) 2. INTERMITTANT, hanya membutuhkan support sesaat, terjadi pada masa transisional (sedang) 3. EXTENSIVE, membutuhkan bantuan lebih dari transisi, setiap hari tetapi masih mampu mandiri pada hal-hal tertentu (berat)

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