• Document: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CANADIAN LAW: TORT LAW
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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CANADIAN LAW: TORT LAW Lewis N. Klar* INTRODUCTION ...................................... 329 II. DIRECT INTERFERENCES WITH PERSONS, CHATTELS AND LAND .............................................. 330 A. Assaul Battery and False Imprisonment .............. 330 1. The Defence of Legal Authority ................... 331 2. The Defence of Consent ......................... 334 3. The Effect of Provocation ........................ 336 B. Intentional Infliction of Mental Suffering .............. 338 C. Trespass, Detinue and Conversion .................... 338 III. NEGLIGENCE ........................................ 341 A. Standardof Care ................................. 341 1. Medical Malpractice ............................. 341 2. Legal Malpractice ............................... 345 3. Other Professionals ............................. 346 4. Limitation Periods .............................. 348 B. Proof ............................................ 349 1. Res lpsa Loquitur ............................... 349 * Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Alberta. 325 326 Ottawa Law Review [Vol. 17:325 C. Duty ............................................ 350 1. The Effect of Statutory Duties on the Common Law Action .................................... 350 2. Duties of Affirmative Action ...................... 353 3. Public Tort Liability ............................. 355 4. Immunity from Suit ............................. 362 5. Liability for Negligent Statements .................. 363 D. Causation ........................................ 365 1. Cause-in-Fact .................................. 365 2. Multiple Causes ................................ 368 E. Remoteness ....................................... 370 1. The Possibility Test .............................. 370 2. The Thin Skull Rule and Suicide ................... 372 3. Novus Actus Interveniens ......................... 373 4. Recovery for Nervous Shock ...................... 375 5. Recovery for Pure Economic Losses ................ 376 F. Conduct of the Plaintiff ............................ 380 1. Contributory Negligence .......................... 380 (a) Failureto Wear a Seat Belt .................... 380 2. Volenti Non Fit Injuria ........................... 382 3. Ex Turpi Causa ................................ 383 IV. STRICT LIABILITY .................................... 383 A. Rylands v. Fletcher ................................ 383 B. Strict Liability for Dangerous Things .................. 384 C. Strict Liability for Animals .......................... 385 D. Vicarious Liability ................................. 386 1985] Torts 327 V. NUISANCE .......................................... 386 A. Public Nuisance ................................... 386 B. PrivateNuisance .................................. 390 VI. PRODUCTS LIABILITY ................................. 392 VII. OCCUPIER'S LIABILITY ................................ 394 VIII. BUSINESS TORTS ................................. 397 A. Deceit or Fraud ................................ 397 B. Inducing Breach of Contract ...................... 398 C. Intimidation .................................. 400 D. Conspiracy ................................... 401 E. Action on the Case ............................. 402 IX. DEFAMATION .................................... 402 A. Elements of the Action .......................... 403 1. What is Defamatory? ......................... 403 2. Publication ................................. 403 3. Reference to the Plaintiff ....................... 404 B. Defences ..................................... 404 1. Truth ..................................... 404 2. Absolute Privilege ...........

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